Geography Of Iraq
1.Natural resources Of Iraq :
natural resources of Iraq are primarily mineral; the country is well
rich with petroleum and natural gas. It has also large quantities of
water, supplied by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Along and between
the Tigris and Euphrates rivers are areas of rich soil. About 50% of
the land is arable. There are small deposits of coal, salt, sulfur and
2.Flora & fauna Of Iraq :
Vegetation is fairly sparse throughout Iraq, chiefly due to the high saline content of the soil in many places.
Cultivated trees include the date palm and the poplar. Fauna include
the antelope, bat, cheetah, hare, hyena, gazelle, jackal, jerboa, lion,
various species of lizard, wolf, wild ass and wild pig.
are many birds of prey, including the buzzard, hawk, owl, vulture and
raven, and a few other birds, which include geese, duck, partridge and
3.Climate Of Iraq :
Iraq's mainly continental climate brings a wide range of temperature,
with hot summers, particularly in the south, and cold winters,
especially on the higher ground.
In the mountainous region of the north, summers can be a little cooler
and humidity is lower than in the south. During the winter months
(October to April) snow often falls on the mountains.
In the central areas of Iraq, summers are much hotter, with
temperatures in Baghdad rising to about 33.3°C (92°F) in July and
August. It is not unknown for temperatures to soar as high as 50.6°C
(123°F) in this region. Winter in Baghdad brings a mean temperature of
about 9.4°C (49°F). Temperatures in Basra range from 37°C (98.6°F) in
summer to 14°C (57.2°F) in winter. Dust storms are an unpleasant
feature of the central plains region.
The southern area around the Gulf has extremely high humidity and some
of the highest temperatures recorded anywhere in the world.
Rainfall is heaviest in the north-east and falls mostly between October
and May. On the central plain, however, less than 152mm (about 6
inches) falls annually. Desert areas receive virtually no rainfall.
4.Topography Of Iraq :
Iraq has four distinct geographic regions.
The northeastern, mountainous region is known as al-Jazira,
rising to nearly 2135m (7000 feet) near the Turkish border. Iraq's two
highest points are ::I, which rises to 3600m (11,811 feet) and Mount
12,230 feet). The land area between the Tigris and the Euphrates is an
alluvial plain and is Iraq's most fertile region.
In the southeast, adjacent to the Persian Gulf, is a low-lying swampy area, containing marshes, lakes and reedy waterways.
To the west of the Euphrates is the desert region, where the land
gradually rises to join the Syrian Desert. This desert area constitutes
about 35% of Iraq's total land area.
Iraq's two main rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, flow from
northwest to south-east. They converge near Baghdad, then diverge and
meet once again about 160km (100 miles) north of the Persian Gulf, to
form the Shatt al-Arab River. This river flows through Basra
and drains into the Gulf. Richly alluvial soil characterizes the
Tigris-Euphrates basin; elsewhere, soils are very light and not